If a computer is like HP 655, which has no option to disable UEFI and you have a msdos partitioned hard drive, debian installer does not install, because it claims that there has no EFI boot partition (in
msdos partition table has no esp partition). Command
sudo parted -l tells the type of partition table.
The solution is to use Calamares installer and install grub-pc after an installation via live-media. Calamares installer comments that system does not boot without bootloader, but ignore that message.
When Calamares has done its job, it is time to install grub via terminal. An example system / partition /dev/sda1
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
sudo mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
sudo mount --bind /proc /mnt/proc
sudo mount --bind /sys /mnt/sys
sudo chroot /mnt
… the contents
…. save and quit
apt install grub-pc
grub-install --target=i386-pc /dev/sda
sudo umount /mnt/sys
sudo umount /mnt/proc
sudo umount /mnt/dev
sudo umount /mnt
Shutdown and boot the computer.